Saturday, May 23, 2020

Marketing Principles Strategies Tasks - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2648 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Narrative essay Level High school Did you like this example? Contents Introduction Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Introduction In this report we will be looking at a large organisation that we believe has used good principles of marketing to grow and business has become successful. Marketing is about identifying and understanding customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ needs and wants and we will be looking at their promoting and selling of products. This report will also explain how the organisation has used the marketing principles to grow to grow and succeed. We will also be looking at benefits of marketing orientation for HM retail store. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Marketing Principles Strategies Tasks" essay for you Create order Task 1 The definition of marketing is a method of communication that demonstrates the value of a product and service to a customer, the purpose of marketing to selling the product or service. Marketing is line that link between the buyer and the seller. Marketing activities and strategies outcome are making products available that content customers while making profits for the companies that offer the products. Marketing is more about understanding customers need and offer them what he need in a different way. HM Hennas Mauritz is a Swedish retail clothing company. It is fast fashion clothing for all type of gander, women, men, teenager and children. HM has 2,500 brands in 43 counties. HM is a customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s determined company, that Understand and try to meet their customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ needs, is at the core of everything they do. HM produce everything with a value for people and the environment. HM give a high-quality value to their products and the most important is reinforcement customers offering. HM offers and understand all the customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ need. HM offers fashion, quality clothe and even at good prices. The consequence for their store, this includes products being produced, transported and sold with care to people and the environment. HM makes more sustainable choices available to all customers around the world. HM promises are to provide fashion for aware customers. HM pay attention to their customers and offer them the products and collections they want with the designs and quality materials. HM always keep ahead of competition, to inspire and surprise customers and strengthen customers offering. As well as adding sustainability value to their products in which enables them to achieve. HM inform their customers about what they do to make fashion more sustainable in a clear and comprehensible way this is one of the main reasons, in which that make HM stay ahead in the competition. Communication well with custome r is one of the main key features of business. HM staff makes sure their customer are appreciated and enjoyed their shopping experience. HM offers for their customers all the easy ways for shopping. HM keep updating the latest fashion, whether clothes, bags, shoes or jewelleries. HM walks with the seasons as well, HM always offer sale which attracts the customers. They also do superior offers, were customers are able to buy one and get another half price or buy one get one for free. They have a policy were customers have about 30 days of refunds or exchanges, if there are not happy with their purchases. HM communicate effectively with customer through advertisements on websites, streets boards, magazines and company catalogue. HM develop by providing smart phone Apps, shopping online, media, they also offer card payments in store. Task 2 The benefited of Marketing oriented strategy are when HM forcing on customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ needs and wants. HM well known as Success Company where they know and understand what their customers want within every target market. HM produce and keep their product as cheaply as possible or in a low prices, so that they attract all kind of customers because customers will buy anything as much they can as long as ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cheap. HM offers all the type of cloth and other items, HM make sure that they seal everything for large amount of costumer that they may buy and need and even make sure the is the right product to the right target market. HM do not only seal in cheap prince, they also seal quality, style and fit to the fashion and thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s what attracts people most. Other way that HM attract the customers is that they have strong designer team and they proudest it fast. Market orientation helps HM to think how to develop the organisation in the future and be better than their competitors it also helps the business from failing. The advantages of Market orientation it has strong position to meet the challenge of new competition, market orientation react more quickly to changes in the market because of market information, however that may cost a lot of money. HM market orientation is that they are able to respond quickly to changes in the market because of their use of information. Task 3 HM looks deeply in clothing especially in female clothing. HM broke down the market into small section in which customers share common characteristic. HM focus on all characteristics, such as age, gender and family life style. They have got all the different age sections, people between ages the 16-50 inside the different ages, HM look in to their different life styles as well. The different lifestyles are student who is enjoying their time socialising, mums, working class which need to be dressed professional and teenagers. Beside the psychographic characteristics HM divide the benefits of each group, such as the income type, low prices for each psychographic characteristic. Student who is enjoining their time differently than the classic worker have different way that HM look into. Student age 16-25 with different income who love to be always on the top of fashion trends. Psychographic characteristic is important, where the customers have different life style, such as sporties t, enjoy parties, simple student and that makes HM provide all the type of different psychographic character HM keep updating the fashion for clothe and the other product, the benefited is to keep the student in teach with the latest fashion. The Benefited are more to the fashion, quality and the low prices. Classic women who want to looked professionals and fashionable too, HM also look differently into that segment, where the classic works has higher income than the students. The product for this segment has high price and more quality, as HM knows that kind of segment will be pay more no matter the price is. The demographic characteristics are the age 35-45 and the status, such as single, marriage and Mums. HM provide to those different characterises, different style of fashion, quality and even price. For example, single women would be more into fashion and make shopping than the marriage or the mums therefore the prices and even the style would be different than another. Mum s are always simple and most of them may not look into fashion, therefore HM has a special section with different choices of style that is suitable for them at good prices. HM also look at different cultures and religious for those segmentations, where they have all the styles that suite everyone. That depends on the location sometimes and the lifestyle at that area. HM has few competitive, such as Gap, Zara and Old Navy. However, the main worldwide competitor to HM is Zara, and the mainly reason is that their clothing style are similar. In comparison to Zara, HM offers is affordable to whose that do not work, unlike Zara it sells designer clothes mostly aimed to people that receive higher income. Comparing to other like Primark and Zara, HM has good quality cloths and suitable prices, where Primark has low prices but much less quality. The main reason why HM is ahead their competition is because of their following with celebrities. Task 4 The target customers of HM belong to the group of fashionable and trendy consumers who see shopping as a social activity providing pleasure in their daily life HM produce cheap products of responsible quality, and motivated by the latest fashion. HM offers all they the type clothing for men, children, babies and women. Beside the clothe HM also sale footwear and home decor. HM main target marker are women, who are the most look into the fashion what women wear and need, such as bags, all kind of cloths, jewellery, scarf, shoes, makeup and body care. HM offers different size, style and different colourers, all style jewellery and bags. According to the brand, HM use most of their product in their own brand, such as cloths scarf and jewellery. Some of the product has different brand such as the makeup and the body care, HM has the same product but in their own brands. However the different is the prices and even the quality. HM brand are sometimes low-priced then the other brand t hey seal in the store. For example, the nail polish has different prices; the HM brands are much cheaper than the other brands. Most of the women are not into brands, they enjoy most the style and the colours and if it on the fashion and have good quality, therefore HM do not care much on other famous brands. HM are known as a quality product and low prices. However, HM prices divided to a few sections, where the clothes are more fashionable and more quality that would be in best prices. That means HM set a high price for a product to highlight the product as high quality. HM prices are normally cheaper; some of the items are less than  £8, HM set price which is perceived as low like  £99.99 or  £5.49. Some items sales in HM found in other shops as well, HM sett normally the price similar or less to their competitive. As much as women with high income do not care about the price, where they pay what they like without worrying about the price. However, they lo ve their eyes to catch psychological pricing and premium pricing. HM always set the right product to the right price. As HM are well knows market, HM is always be placed in busy area, such as popular malls and big cities. HM also has an online shopping place which is easy for customers who are not be able to visit the store. For example, busy women who do not have time to make shopping and women who has physical problem, would rather shop online and even save time. HM magazine is the main key to get their clothing out of the market, where most of the women enjoy looking through specials high classic women who are into the fashion. HM are also show out their clothing and the latest on the social network, like Facebook, Twitter and Instagarm. The main target audience for this type of promoting are 18-25. HM do Sale promotion to attract their main targets which are all type of women, Sale promotion are buy one get one free, 50% discount, vouchers and even they give gift card in s pecialise days such as charismas. Task 5 A successful business need to plan well and make marketing dictions to avoid business from failing. There are few changes be made or happens every time and that affect every business; those changes are political, economic, socio-cultural and technological. Political are more about what the government changes may influence the economy. The government may inflict a new tax or duty due to which entire income generate structures of organizations might change. Economic are about performance that directly impacts a company and have resonating long term effects. Economic factors include increase rate, interest rates, overseas exchange rates, economic growth patterns and so on. The socio- cultural changes are more about demographics characristic, lifestyle changes, income changes and level of education. The technological do not have so much affect at the businesses rather than cost a lot of money. However, innovations in technology that may affect the operations of the industry and the mar ket positively or critically The main changes can affect HM is customers live, where that is depending on customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s income. If a regular customer who used to shop from HM, and their income became less than normal, they will prevent shopping as usual and HM will lose customer. Demographic characteristic affect the business as well, where the age changes, for example when age 40 turn to 50 that segment will find out that HM do not have the right style that fit eldly pepole. Lifestyle changes have a big role that also affects the business, for example where a customer changes the style or the fashion they used to fallow. Social mobility can cause business changing; a person can become very busy that will not be able to shop. Any changing with the government it is possible of changing industry regulations, interest rates and tax laws. That can affect the company where they need to set up the prices to be able to make more profit, even if the legislations became h igh such as wages and bills and that cost. Economic are other main changing that affect the business. HM use high-quality material, so if the material inflated that will affect the business as well, which makes HM to increase customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s prices. Inflation has other affect that can cause on any business, such as unemployment, low income, inflation level and resource availability. Interest rates may affect the businessà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cost of capital and even exchange rates may affect the price of imported goods. As the technology developing fast and becoming part of our life. A new discovery and innovations develop the business, such as the factory, new machines and so on. However, that will cost a lot on the business. Technology is very important to HM that make them to communicate with their customers. Internets are one of the communication methods that transfer information to nearly everyone and everywhere. Advertising is part of technology where HM advert ise their product throw TV, websites, and magazine. As the technology improves all the advertising methods will be become more expensive, that will affect the business where they will spend a lot of money to promote their product. All this business changes that affect the businesses, most have one that they can control it and achieve what they aim for. HM mange to control over the socio-cultural, where they try to meet all the customers need. HM mange how to control the prices for the product, they try not to be very expensive and all income type of customer that be able to buy. So that the customers do not get bored of the fashion they try to update the cloth and the fashion as soon as they can. Bibliography James, E. (2013) Jamez biz , [Online], Available: https://www.jamezbiz.com/2012/07/case-study-on-h.html [24 December 2013]. Pandey, A. (2011) BPMGEEK, 26 September, [Online], Available: https://bpmgeek.com/blog/what-pestle-analysis [26 December 2013]. Radman, A. (2012) Hennes Mauriz, 1 May, [Online], Available: https://hennesmauritz.blogspot.co.uk/2012/05/chap8-segmenting-and-targeting-markets.html#!/2012/05/chap8-segmenting-and-targeting-markets.html [22 December 2013]. Zubair, F. (2012) studymode, april, [Online], Available: https://www.studymode.com/essays/Hnm-Case-Study-956200.html [22 December 2013]. Marketing Principles StrategiesPage 1

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Dissertation is to investigate - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 27 Words: 8080 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the need for and impact of employee remuneration on organizational productivity. The study will focus on relationship between motivational techniques and employee performance. To examine the relationship between the level of job satisfaction of employee performance. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dissertation is to investigate" essay for you Create order It will also investigate the relationship between remuneration and employee performance. And the evaluation and development of reward process, which in turn can lead to improved profitability in an organization. If it is accepted that organizations assets are its work force, it is imperative that they ensure that they are fully motivated. This is because if the workers perceive that they are poorly remunerated, their performance is likely to drop and this will have negative effects on the organization. It is important to note that there are several theories of motivation proposed by various researchers including Abraham Maslow, Alderfers ERG Theory, Herzbergs two-factor Theory, Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory, McClellands Theory, Goal Setting Theory, McGregors theory X and Y, Ouchis Theory Z etc. (Sarin, 2009; 237). These theories have led to the development of various tools of motivation used by organizations to stimulate the interest of their employees. This research will examine the some of these motivation theories and apply them to measure their actual effectiveness on employee performance as well as organizational productivity. Managing requires the creation and maintaining of an environment for the performance of individual working together in groups towards the accomplishment of a common objectives/ goals. A manager cannot do his job without knowing what his people want. To emphasize the importance of knowing and taking advantages of motivating factors particularly job satisfaction is the concern of the managers. Their job is not to attempt to manipulate people but rather to recognize the motivating factors in designing an environment for performance. The basic element of human behaviour is one kind of activity, physical or mental. We can look at human behaviour as a series of activities, the question that arises, include to what extent can the activities of human being be undertaken in any point in time that is people do things that lead them to accomplish something, but individual goals can be elusive, sometimes people know exactly why they do things. Management task is to get things done through other people due to global economic recession which is affecting Nigeria economy, employee are no longer safe due to unnecessary retrenchment, layoff , payoff compulsory leave etc, employee do not want to put in order to encourage active participation from employee for the attainment of organizational goal, there should be job satisfaction. The word Employee Remuneration to most people refers to money and usually money in addition to wages and salaries. However, job satisfaction according to Lawal (1992, pg56) is the favourableness with which employee view their work. Stephen P.etal (2009), define job satisfaction as a persons general attitude towards her job. It is obtained when there is a proffer fit between job characteristics and wants of employees, in fact Employee Remuneration is an organizational set up as an embodiment of many factors, Employee Remuneration has a cause effect phenomenon, one area that brings about job satisfaction is the motivation of the workers. The factors identified by management to be responsible for Employee Remuneration of workers on the jobs are:- Good Remuneration Job Enrichment Job Content Job Rotation Conducive job environment Positive Criticism Participating in all level of decision process Equity share in the organization. Recognition for contribution made in the organization. Since evaluation of management, professional managers and the writers on management have made a variety of assumptions about what would make the individual employee (that is the worker) to be satisfied, for example, the traditional theory of organization that a system of reward and punishment should be used to elicit the desire behaviour. This is implemented through compensation package based on productivity of an employee e.g. Taylor differentiate system based on the necessity not out of love of money. Therefore, this assumption naturally lead to the conclusion that was an important factor that satisfied the workers on the job. In late 80s, managers started to witness frequent encounter with workers who appeared to be suspicious of management and also are unimpressed by money, unconcerned about productivity and self-centred. Then recognition of for workers become a major challenge to management in view of the fact that a simple solution to the problem did not exist. From the above it therefore implies that for organization to increase employee performance, managers need to be much more sophisticated in understanding of employees behaviour in an organisation. The understanding will provide basic ingredient for the designing and incorporating. Employee remuneration strategies into the policy and objective of the organisation on the total neglect is capable of having a great adverse effect on the organisational objective specially on the long run. Employee resentment of the scientific management system led to the modification of job design and to maintain employee enthusiasm and productivity, job enrichment became HR managers approach to motivation. Employees desire jobs that are challenging, autonomous and will require their intellects. Job enrichment makes provision to fulfil this desire as it involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and co-coordinating tasks (Stevenson, 2002; 310 cited in Maxwell et al, 2008; 436). According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2001) cited also in Maxwell et al (2008; 436) the theory of job enrichment is a practical application of Herzbergs hygiene theory, which postulates that employees are motivated when there is an increase in job satisfaction (Maxwell et al, 2008; 436). 1.1 Background to the study In Nigeria, there is a complete dearth of studies that looked into this effective management tool in organisations. Therefore, this study will carry out primary research amongst employees in a Nigerian banking sector. It is important to find out whether labour performance can be improved through remuneration which can be in term of financial and non-financial remuneration/reward in the Nigerian working environment. Hence, the research into reward and motivation has become necessary in order to alert Nigerian employers on the need for adequate motivation, both financial and non-financial to ensure commensurate employee performance. Motivation commences with a need, vision, dream, or desire to achieve what seems impossible. Employers desire their employees to have a can-do attitude to everything. In their opinion, this attitude assures an increase in productivity (Maxwell et al, 2008; 432). In todays increasingly changing world, both employee and employers are trying to find ways to make jobs more meaningful and satisfying. One of the ways to do this is to redesign jobs to better meet new requirements. The re-engineering of jobs has been a significant labor market occurrence over the last 20 years. The design of jobs as it relates to employee participation, flexible working and employee/group independence has experienced extensive changes. These changes include the use of several recent HR practices e.g. employee involvement programs such as quality circles, more use of job rotation and flexibility, job enrichment, job enlargement, and more work-team self-management (Maxwell et al, 2008; 432-433). Redesigning ha s several characteristics of which job enrichment is one. The study of job redesign reveals how various classes of workers vary from one to another in form of what they need. According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2001) cited in Maxwell et al (2008; 433), job design or redesign is any set of activities involving the alteration of specific jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with the intent of improving the quality of employee job experience and their on-the-job productivity. Employee resentment of the scientific management system led to the modification of job design and to maintain employee enthusiasm and productivity, job enrichment became HR managers approach to motivation. Employees desire jobs that are challenging, autonomous and will require their intellects. Job enrichment makes provision to fulfil this desire as it involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and co-ordinating tasks (Stevenson, 2002; 310 cited in Maxwell et al, 2008; 436). According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2001) cited also in Maxwell et al (2008; 436) the theory of job enrichment is a practical application of Herzbergs hygiene theory, which postulates that employees are motivated when there is an increase in job satisfaction (Maxwell et al, 2008; 436). The purpose of this research is highlighting the impact of employee remuneration on organisational productivity. It is aimed at identifying those attitudes of the management of the company towards its employees that will enable the company to achieve its corporate goals. This study is necessary as lack of adequate information can hinder organisations from achieving set goals, which usually amongst many others is profit maximisation. 1.2 Aims and Objectives The main aim of this study is to know the importance of employees remuneration to the job satisfaction of the workforce, and theoretically it is to identify the various motivational incentive and summarise the various view of managers on the impact of these incentives on employee. Also this study aims to evaluate Access bank plc success vis-a-vis rewarding their staffs. Objectives The objective of this study is to examine, The Impact that Employee Remuneration has on organisational Productivity in the this, the researcher will attempt to examine the following:- To examine the relationship between motivational techniques and employee performance. To examine the relationship between level of job satisfaction of employee performance. To examine the relationship between employee remuneration and employee performance The evaluation and development of reward process. The link between employee remuneration and job satisfaction 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Human being as individual has a unique characteristic which is distinct from others, therefore in an organisation that has over one thousand workers, it means there would be different kind of characteristics. Employee remuneration as a psychology concept calls for a thorough understanding of employees need which will enable the management to blend them with the corporate need in order to have an equitable mix that will enhance the realisation of the overall objectives of the overall objectives of the organisation and employee. On a closer look at most organisation, the essential intrinsic factors have not been properly addressed by contemporary organisation, no wonder we have high rate of incessant strike witnessed by these organisations over the year. The problem therefore is how to maintain an equitable compensation package of fulfilling the aspiration of both the employee and employers in such a way that an equilibrium social interaction will be maintained. It is therefore important for the organisation to realize the provision of intrinsic factor that satisfy the need urges, want and aspiration of workers would have a long run effect on the profitability base of the organisation which are fundamental criteria for the measurement of Employees Remuneration. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction In this chapter, the researcher proposes to critically consider a number of theories of motivation that are relevant to the study. In addition, the researcher will examine the impact of employee remuneration, and the relationship between job enrichment and employee performance. To examine the relationship between motivational techniques and employee performance. To examine the relationship between level of job satisfaction of employee performance. To examine the relationship between employee remuneration and employee performance The evaluation and development of reward process. The link between employee remuneration and job satisfaction 2.1 Motivation Theories Motivation deals with the factors that shape peoples behaviour. The three components of motivation identified by Arnold et al (1991) cited in Armstrong (2002; 56) are 1) direction 2) effort and 3) persistence. In a work environment, employees can self-motivate by seeking and engaging in activities that will lead them to achieve set goals (intrinsic motivation) or be motivated by management through various reward systems (extrinsic motivation) (Armstrong, 2002; 56). Earlier views on motivation, albeit not always perfect, have proved to be an important part of the foundation for evolutionary growth. Motivation is a blend of factors that drives peoples actions and it can be classified as individual, group and organizational motivation. The different theories of motivation, in their different ways facilitate our understanding of the complex process of motivation and the fact that there are no straightforward answers to motivating anybody (Armstrong, 2002; 57). Scientific management sees money as the primary human motivator, while the view of human relations is that social factors are the primary human motivator (Sarin, 2009; 237). Frederick Winslow Taylor, who is known as the father of scientific management, focused on applying the concepts of science to improve production by relying on the use of observation, measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives. His study of work methods in great detail identified the best process for doing each job and laid emphasis on output. This theory was not particularly favoured with workers, who believed that it was not fair to increase output without a commensurate increase in reward (Stevenson, 2002; 21 cited in Maxwell et al; 2008; 433). The instrumentality theory of motivation derived its roots from the scientific management theory of Taylor and also emphasized the importance of money as the main reason people work. Hence, rewards or otherwise should be linked directl y to performance. However, this theory fails to take into consideration other human needs that could affect performance (Armstrong, 2002; 57). This omission gave rise to the needs theory, the basis of which is the belief that an unfulfilled need creates a sense of anxiety. Therefore, in order to create a sense of fulfilment, once a need is identified, a pattern of fulfilling it must be set out. However, not all needs are important at a given time in a persons life. Some needs are more urgent than others (Armstrong, 2002; 58). Abraham Maslows theory (1940) cited in Sarin (2009; 237) is said to have based his theory on Henry A. Murrays postulation that people seek to satisfy their various needs at the same time, rather than in a specific order. Murrays Manifest Needs however did not arrange the identified needs in any particular order of importance, unlike Maslows hierarchy of a set of five needs Physiological, Security, Social, Esteem and Self actualization each of which is related to the other and arranged in order of hierarchy. According to him, once a need is met, it does not motivate a persons behaviour again. However, it is possible to either move up or down each of the levels depending on whether a need has been fulfilled or the realization of a need is being endangered (Sarin, 2009; 237). McClelland (1975) identified three needs achievement, affiliation and power that motivates managers. However, while agreeing with Maslow that motives are part of the personality, he is of the opinion that they are caused by environmental factors. The levels of these needs are dependent on different individuals. While some may have a higher need for achievement, others may desire affiliation or power (Armstrong, 2002; 58). Herzberg (1959) based his theory on two sets of factors extrinsic and intrinsic that were directly relating to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Extrinsic factors are referred to as hygiene or maintenance factors and they are linked to job environment, job context e.g. quality of supervision, work conditions, company policies, relationship with co-workers and level of compensation. Job dissatisfaction may occur where there are no extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors referred to as motivators or growth factors, on the other hand, relate to the job itself e.g. the complexity of work, level of importance with the organization as well as promotion opportunities. The resultant effect of intrinsic factors is a high level of job satisfaction, which according to Herzberg will prevent dissatisfaction and create a positive attitude to work (Di Cesare and Sadri, 2003; 36). Essentially, businesses should study the motivator factors and hygiene factors with a view to optimize motivation and productivity among employees (Maxwell et al, 2008; 436). Some managers hold the view that employee can be motivated to improve productivity by means of monetary incentives. The monetary scheme may be take a variety of different form example price rate, individual bonus, a team or group bonus scheme , a high pay rate system and profit sharing plan. All these have been packaged to motivate employees so as to improve on their performance. However, the general problem of monetary incentives is that they are effective in the short run but not necessary cost effective, on the other hand, money can motivate depending on the individuals need for money. Money is not an end itself but means of satisfying needs, employee remuneration proceeds high organisational productivity his for workers to be satisfied with their job, there is need to study the various motivation theories postulated by management experts. Motivation theories have series of theories, that is complementary to one another. The leading theory are listed below and summarised in table 19.1. the most significant ones are those concerned with expectancy, goal settings and equity, which are classified as process or cognitive theories. 2.2 Employee Compensation Dessler (2008) define employee compensation as all forms of pay going to employee and arising from their employment. He also stated that the compensation can be in two forms and they are direct financial payment and indirect financial payment. Direct financial payment can come in form of wages, salaries, incentives, commission and bonuses. While indirect can be in form financial benefit like employer-paid insurance and vacations. All these are strategy of remuneration, Baron A Armstrong M, give their own contribution towards the strategy of remuneration that the implication of human capital theory is that investment in people adds to their value to the firm. 2.2.1 Why should organisations compensate Employee? According to Stephen P. Robbins David A. Decenzo (2005, pg211) when an organisation design its overall compensation package, it has to look further than just an hourly wages or annual salary. It has to take into account another element, benefits. They even include that employee remuneration are non financial rewards designed to enrich employees live. This has grown a great importance in the life of an employee and a variety over the past years. Also stated that non financial reward should also put into consideration , if an employee invest their human capital into the firm they have to obtain a return not only in form of opportunity to grow and to achieve but also in terms of being valued to their employer. This authors opinion is different from other peoples opinion they include that organisation should have array of benefit such as paid time off from work, life and disability insurance, retirement programs and health insurance. While some of this benefit are been paid by both employee and employer, such benefits are retirement and health insurance. 2.3 Employee Remuneration The word Employee Remuneration to most people refer s to money and usually money is addition to wages and salaries. In fact employee in any organisation set up as an embodiment of many factors. Employee remuneration has caused effective phenomenon, one area that brings about employee remuneration is motivation of the workers In fact employee remuneration in any organisation set up embodiment of many factors. employee remuneration has caused effect phenomenon, one area that brings about employee remuneration is motivation of the workers. The organisations identified to be responsible for employee remuneration of workers are as follows: Job Enrichment Job Rotation Job Content Conducive Job Environment Equity Share in the organisation Participation in all level of decision process Positive criticism Recognition for contribution made in the organisation. Since evaluation of management professional managers and writers on management have made variety of assumption-about what would make the individual employees (workers) to be satisfied for example. The traditional (theory of organisation that a system reward and punishment should be used to elicit the desire behaviour, this is implemented through a compensation packages, based on productivity of employee example of Taylor differentiates payee system of based on the assumption that employee work out of necessity not out of love of money. Therefore this naturally led to the conclusion that money was an important factor that satisfied the workers on the job. In the late eightys (80) and ninetys (90) managers started to witness frequent encounter with workers who appeared to be suspicious of management in view of the fact that a simple solution to the problem of did not exist, in addition it may be noted that when considering some traits of workers. The understanding will provide the basic ingredient for designing and incorporating employee remunerations and strategies into the policy and objective of the organisation as it is total neglect is capable of having a great advance effect on the organisation objective especially in the long run. Reilly P. Williams T. (2006) Support that for employee remunerations to be effective HR needs the support of the top team. An unsympathetic CEO can be the a major block on getting people management issue properly on the agenda. Even when the HR director is low in the pecking order, well behind the chief financial officer information officer, the same result will occur. So HR director as a person needs to be respected by the board, executive etc. need to support and understand what HR is doing. This simply means another way for HR to motivate staff is to have a good relationship with senior management and with employees. 2.3.1 When should an employee is well remunerated? The characteristics of the job need of the individual, it is clear that there are numerous variable between people and their jobs that helps to determine their relationship. It must be noted that the concept of employee remuneration is psychological, it relates to these forces operating within individual employees. The underlying problem is therefore, that management should attempt to strike a balance so as to satisfy the interest of both the organisation and the workers. The reality of management observed that emphasis of high employee remuneration shifted away from the job itself to labour. In simplistic term, an employee organisation productivity can be define as being determined by the level and interaction between ability and motivation thus: Organisation productivity is contingent on a number of factors such as skill (liability appropriate for assigned job)motivation and role clarify (a clear understanding of assigned role). Another way that Reilly Williams T add their support to how HR activity can influence the way to manage their staff, it will be encouraging line managers to allow scope for employee involvement and space for employees to act in practical terms, that this might be supporting the consultation of staff if changes are afoot. Also it is the duty of HR to determine whether the employee is due to be reward, before the department can come to conclusion, such employee have to go through the performance appraisal process which contains three steps Define the job:- the means that the employee understand the nature of the job that he/ she has to do in the organisation and to do it to the organisation standards Appraising performance:- Dessler G defines this as comparing your subordinates actual performance as to the standard that have been set ; this usually involves some types of rating form. Feedback session:- here is the situation where two of you debate on employees performance and progress, an d make plan for any development. There various methods of appraisal methods such as graphic rating scale, Alternation ranking method, paired comparison method, forced distribution method etc. I will try and expansiate on two of this methods PAIRED COMPARISON METHOD:- this is a method whereby the two employee together in terms of quantity of work, quality of work , behaviour, how they react to work whenever they have been called, team work and so on. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE METHOD:- this method can be refer to as the simplest and what most organisation prefer to use for appraising staff performance. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK To provide the required theoretical background for the study attempt will made to review literature of motivation as a means of achieving employee remunerations. Reward Reward can be described as a way which one is been compensate what been done either good or bad, it can also be called benefit that is given to an employee or group of people in an organisation. This can be done directly or indirectly. It usually use to encourage people at work to be able to put more effort in work that need to be done. This usually done when an employee want to sign a contract with an organisation or company such employer needs to allow the employee to be fully aware what the package of the income will be per annum or hourly paid if such an employee is interest he or she is going to sign the contact form. There are two types of rewards, they are financial and non financial rewards. Financial Reward also can be refer to as an incentive which can be in form of financial reward given to an employees whose production exceed predetermined standard that is the production is beyond what the organisation expectation. This can also be in form of pay structure, incentives and benefits this three usually has it important role to play in implementing strategies in an organisation. firstly, For a high level of pay or benefits relative to that of competitors can ensure that the company attracts and retains high quality employees, but this might have a negative impact on the companys overall labour cost. Secondly, by tying pay to performance, the company can elicit specific activities and level of performance from employee. In a study of how compensation practices are tied to strategies, researchers examined 33high- tech and 72 traditional companies. They classified them by whether they were in growth stage. They found that high-tech companies in growth stage (greater than 20percent inflation- adjusted increases in annual sales) or a maturity stage. They found that high-tech companies in the growth stage used compensation systems that were highly geared towards incentive pay, with a lower percentage of total pay devoted to salary and benefits. On the other hand, compensation systems among mature companies (both high-tech and traditional)devoted a lower percentage of total pay to incentive and a high percentage to benefits. (Noe.et.al 2003; pg 69). Organisation believe that given an employee incentives after profit is another way of motivating an employee to put more effort to his /her work this reward can be inform of profit sharing, salary increase, Non- Financial reward 2.5 Job satisfaction you need to talk on job satisfaction Employee performance pg66 amstrong hand bk 2.6 What is Motivation Behind every behaviour there is motive, that is all behaviour is motivated, behaviour psychologist agree that what motivate individual is the satisfaction of their needs but do not develop generally acceptable clarification of needs, several theories of motivation of worker. These theories can be grouped into two major categories. The satisfaction or content theories The instrumentally theories The satisfaction or content theories assume that human beings have needs and its their desire to satisfy these needs that limitation to specific behaviours. The instrumentality or process theories are based on the assumptions of that the part which leads to a goal is influenced by the reception and values of members of the organisation. The theory of Maslow, Adeifer, Herzberg are example of theory of needs satisfaction theories. Vroom porter, Lawal and Jacque are example of instrumentality of theories. Lawal (1993), says Motivation is a persuasive function that come across all aspect of employees development, the need for motivation can be viewed from following perspectives. Qualified manpower must be attracted and maintain in organisation ton exercise Once employed workers must be motivated to exercise their time and energy in achieving the predetermined goals of the organisation. Human resources are most important factor of production in an organisation and must be maintained and developed. The reasons highlighted above suggest that the creation of conducive working environment employee remuneration are the requirement for achievement of organisation success. Hence it is necessary for manager to understand what motivate workers and how motivation influence organisation productivity. In brief, motivation is an inner state that energize activates or more directs or channel behaviour towards goals/objectives. Motivation therefore is a general term used to denotes relationship between needs and the fulfilment of needs. It is dynamic process that this five (5) parts. Deprivation, presence of need (NEEDS) Need crystal led as want (WANTS) Action, goal oriented behaviour (ACTIONS) Tension or drives to fulfil the need (DRIVES) Satisfaction of need that reduce the drive and thus create the need for re-evaluation. The above description of motivation process may not be enough to explain employees behaviour, some theories of some reckoned management writers may be needed for further clarification and explanation. Also there is two types of motivation Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation can be define as 2.8. MASLOW S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS According to Robert (1971), the best known theory of motivation was proposed by MASLOW, who hypothesized that work of every human being there exist an hierarchy of five (5) needs. According to Maslow, human beings have needs that can be arranged in hierarchy of needs, if these needs are satisfied human being will be motivated to perform however a satisfied needs is no longer a motivator. Maslow saw human needs ascending from the lowest to the highest and opined that once a set of need is met it cease to be a motivator. The needs hierarchy are Physiological needs, safety needs, affiliation or acceptance needs, esteem needs, self-actualisation needs. Physiological needs: These are basic needs of sustenance in life such as food, clothing, and shelter. It is believed according to Maslow that these needs have to be fulfilled before other needs can motivate people. Security or Safety needs: These are needs of Safety such as job security, fear of losing homes Acceptance needs: This is the need that people have to be accepted in a social environment Esteem needs: Here, people having accepted and have a sense of belonging, they want to be held in high esteem by themselves and others, this kind of needs can be reflected in power, prestige, status and respect Self-actualisation: This is the highest need in this hierarchy, it is the desire to accomplish ones desire using ones potential. individual to realize his own full potential and for self development. In this theory, it could be noted that: Motivation is determine by numerous needs. The needs of individual very considerably Manager must determine the use of subordinate and adopt appropriate motivation strategies for creating conducive working environment. Furthermore, Maslow was able to separate these five (5) needs into Higher needs i.e. love, esteem, self actualisation. Low need i.e. physiological needs, safety needs . The reason for the above classification is based on the premises that: High order needs are satisfied internally Owner needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by such things are money, wages union contract and pleasant working conditions). Maslow hierarchy of needs theory has received wide recognition particular managers, this could among participating managers, this can be attributed to the theory intensive logic and case of understanding, unfortunately however research does not generally validated the theory, as Maslow provide as empirical substantiation. 2.7.1 ALDERFER REVISED MASLOW S THEORY Alderfer revises Maslows theory and developed the theory of E.R.G where Existence need: safety and physiological needs Relatedness needs: the social and status needs Growth needs: self actualisation and self-esteem needs. However the distinction between Maslow arrangement of needs in hierarchy. To him a class of needs may remain strong irrespective of the level of satisfaction of other needs. Aldderfer study has also highlighted the following, finding in the line with Maslow theory. The less satisfaction of the existence needs, that more will be the desire for them. The less the satisfaction of relatedness needs the more unit will be the desire for them. Reduction in satisfaction for growth needs create will desire for relatedness needs. 2.7.2 PATTON THEORY OF MOTIVATION: Patton (1948), explain that factors that can be found useful by managers in motivating subordinate highlight the following basic motivation which are simple, practical and similar to those enumerated by Herzberg: Money sometimes may be a reflection of other motivator. Fear, that is the fear of errors, or loss of job or reduction of a bonus. The lack of motivation considered as an important factor present in many aspect of life. The urge to achieve leadership, that is the will to be a leader ones peer . Status which include promotions, large office, challenging job, company car, curb membership etc. The challenge found in job / work. Pattons theory of motivation put money in position as being in a similar study of Adult (Ansoff (1985) and other found out that all healthy adult have a reservoir or potential energy dischallenge in the basic of individuals motivational derived and the situations opportunities presented. Akinson model related behaviour and performance to three basic drives which vary significantly among individuals, the need for achievement, the need for power and the need for affiliation. 2.7.3 MACCLELAND THEORY OF NEEDS McClelland (1962), identifies 3types of needs of needs that motivate human beings:- The need for power, the need to exert influence and control over other, such individuals generally are seeking positions of leadership have high need for power. The need for affiliation :- the need for belonging needs, individuals with high need for affiliation usually derived pleasure from being loved and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected by a social group. The need for achievement:- that is a desire to excel or to succeed competitive situation individuals with high need for achievement have incense desired for success and equally intense for fear of failure. As individual they like to be challenged set moderately different task (but not impossible) goals for themselves, take realistic approach to risk, prefer to assume personal responsibility to get job done, like specific and prompt feedback on how they are performing all likeness to work long hours. 2.8 LAWLER PRODUCTIVITY-SATISFACTION MODEL. The belief of the heociassican theorist was that a cause effect relationship existed between employee satisfaction and productivity, they therefore recommend external motivation strategies that could lead to increased satisfaction and productivity, they therefore recommended external motivation strategies that could lead to increased satisfaction and subsequently resulting to increase productivity. Lawler model of motivation however changed the direction of relationship by hypothesing that the relationship between satisfaction and performance i.e. linked by another variable reward. Good performance according to Lawler lead to reward, and reward on the other hand lead to performance. The reward may be intrinsic (give individual by himself) or extrinsic (give to the organisation for satisfaction performance). In the model reward are linked directly to satisfaction through perceived equitable rewards which include the perceived amount of money pay actually received. Satisfaction exist of actual rewards exceed perceived rewards. If opposite occur (dissatisfaction result) perceived amount of pay is function of perceived personal job/ input, perceived non monetary outcome and wages history, perceived pay of referent other and actual pay rate. LAWLERS MODEL OF PAY SATISFACTION FROM E.E LAWLER III, PAY AND ORGANISATION EFFECTIVENESS. A PHYSIOLOGICAL VIES, MC GRAW- HILL (1971). In analysing the level of staff motivation and employee remunerations one can approach it from various ways, although, it is somehow difficult and complex, one must identify the possible causes of poor motivation and for variations between individuals and groups. Motivation analysis can be accomplished by means of open and constructive staffs appraisal system, and survey of employers perception and attitudes either by employees of the organisation or externally by an external consultancy firm. 2.8.1 MCGREGOR (THEORY X Y) McGregor (1960), identifies two leadership style on the basis of the perception of manager about subordinate behaviours. In fact the Douglas McGregors theory according to Stephen P.Robins (1982) says after viewing the dealt with employees, he concluded that a managers view of human nature is based on one of two set of assumption about peoples and managers tend their behaviour towards subordinate according to which set an assumption they holds. Douglas McGregor offered two conflicting theories commonly known as theory x and y. THEORY OF X: Theory of X assumes: An average person dislike work and void it if possible. People therefore, must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment in order to let them work towards organisation goals. The average person want to be directed and want to avoid responsibility, he has little ambition and desire for security above all. McGregor considered the approach to be approach to be based upon wrong assumption about motivation and theory Y was preferred. THEORY Y: Theory Y assumption: Expenditure of physical and mental effort is a nation as play or rest. People can exercise self-direction and control to achieve objective which they committed. Commitment to objective is a function of reward associated with their achievement. Under proper condition people can learn to accept and seek responsibility. Ability to use imagination and creative thinking is widely distribution in the population. McGregor supported the view of Maslow about mans hierarchy of needs and suggested that a theory x approach will work well where man is concerned with the physiological and safety needs. Lawal (1993) observed that these two set of assumption have process which can be summarised as followed: 1.PLANNING: In theory x, superior set objective few subordinates hence in any alternative are explored and the commitment to objective and plan are devaluated subordinate. The theory Y, allow for joint objective setting, hence many alternative are explored and there is high commitment to objective and plan on the part of subordinate. 2. LEADING. Leadership is autocratic in theory x while theory Y adopts a participative management style. 3. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: In theory x, people follow and in most cases develop resistance to change, in the theory Y, people seek for responsible and feel accountable and are committed to achievements of result rather than resulting to change. 4. COMMUNICATION: One way communicating in theory Y in order words, instructions are given without complaining in theory x and ideas are exchange in theory Y. 5. CONTROL: Theory x adopts one external and rigid control while control in theory Y is internal and based oneself control. In addition, theory x superior act as judge, since he has low trust in subordinates appraisal. On the other hand, in theory Y superior act as a coach provide high trust in subordinate appraisal and utilized feed toward control. 2.9 REVIEW OF CURRENT LITERATURATURE JOB SCULPTING. According to Butler and Waldroop (1999), job sculpting is the act of attaching peoples to job allows their deeply embedded life interest to be expressed. It is the act of forging a customised career path in other to increase the chance of retaining talented people. Make no mistake, job sculpting is challenging. It requires managers to play both detective and psychologist. The reason many people have only a dim awareness of their own deeply embedded life interest. They may have their lives fulfilling other peoples expectation of them or they may followed the most common courier advice do what you are good at. In the Harvard Business Review of September -October (1999) Butler and Wardroop, say most people in organisation are motivated by between are three deeply embedded life interest long head, emotionally driven passions for certain kinds of activities. Deeply embedded life interests and hobbies or enthusiasm, they are innate passions that are indicating emotional with personality. Life interest doesnt determine what were good at but what kind of work we love. In the context of career satisfaction, values refers to the reward people seek, some people value money. Other want intellectual challenge, and still other desire prestige or a comfortable lifestyle, people with the same abilities and life interest many pursue different careers based on their values. That is why they have concluded that life interest are the most important of the three variable of career satisfaction, someone can be good at a job indeed , some generally need to be and it can be like the reward they received from it. But only life interest will keep most people happy and fulfilled over the long term. And that is the key to retention. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter aims at considering the research procedure for collection of data in respect of employee remuneration as an essential instrument in achieving organisational productivity. It will also show various methods designed to gather the research sampling, research instrument, source of data collection, sample size and population sample. As noted in chapter one, an inductive approach is being used for this research. The inductive approach is relevant because a lot of research has been done on employee remuneration in an organizational productivity. Deductive approach can be refer to as the major relationship between theory and research which has its own gradual process or steps that takes, it also allow proper interpretation . The process of deductive approach is as follows:- Theory Hypothesis Data collection Findings Hypotheses confirmed or rejected Revision of theory. Therefore, I will review some of the main theories of motivation narrowing them down to specific and testable hypotheses. Data will be gathered from available statistics from studies conducted on the issue to test the hypotheses. The fact that not much literature is available on the subject of employee remuneration practices in Nigeria will form the inductive side of my research. This may be quite challenging, but will be an opportunity to study and evaluate national trends, identify patterns with the aim of devising hypotheses. The new hypotheses will be compared to existing theories to conclude whether or not there is a relationship (Saunders et al, 2003: 86-89). Chapter three will deal with the research methodology; the reason for my choice of data gathering and analysis method. Furthermore, I will examine my survey approach questionnaire, as well as enumerate the challenges encountered in the course of this research. Research Philosophy This research shall be exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Exploratory, as I will query what is already in existence, explore fresh insights, raise questions that will facilitate my assessment from a new viewpoint.The advantage of this strategy is its flexibility. Descriptive, as I will go beyond mere description of the theories, but will delve into evaluating the data collected, drawing conclusions from it. Finally, explanatory as I will explain for example the impact of employee remuneration in an organizational productivity (Saunders et al, 2003: 96-98). To allow a broader view in my research, I intend to use multiple sources of evidence. Documentation and questionnaires are the two sources of evidence that I will use for my research. These sources are quite reliable and hence this makes them quite attractive. Data from these sources are also the results of research and surveys done over a period of time and they have good sampling and tested hypotheses. This is quite important in a research because they have a wide coverage. The secondary data collected will be tested through a survey of employees in a Nigerian organization. I will measure the impact of employee remuneration on organizational productivity. The survey strategy will be structured formal questionnaires. I will not be conducting any form of interviews. However, questionnaires will be administered by emailing to my contacts in Nigeria and the completed questionnaires will be emailed to back to me accordingly. I intend to send out at least 10 questionnaires and though this might seem a small sample and thus not representative enough (Yin, 1994), the responses of these employees will still be useful in testing [exploring] existing hypotheses and possibly suggesting alternative accounts. The reason for my small sample is not farfetched considering the fact that I will not be physically present to influence the completion of the questionnaires. In addition, the questionnaire is quite comprehensive and would require commitment on the part of those selected to complete it to actually complete and email it back. The questionnaire will be sent as email to a close contact in the Nigerian organization. This contact is expected to assist in the administration of the question among his colleague. The completed questionnaires will be emailed back to me for analysis. The questionnaire is divided into 3 sections pay administration, importance of financial non-financial rewards and work each consisting an average of 10 questions. Challenges The survey strategy is designed to give me control over the research process, however a lot of time and resources are required e.g. designing and administering the questionnaire, the cost of logistics etc., availability of appropriate computer package to analyze the results of the survey, are just a few. Initially, I wanted to travel to Nigeria to personally administer the questionnaires, but lack of funds to embark on the journey hindered me from doing so. In addition, with the approval of the management, I planned to administer the questionnaire on at least 30 employees 10 each from low, middle and top-level employees. I also planned to interview at least 3 employees 1 each from the different levels. However, this became impractical since I was no longer travelling to Nigeria and conducting the interview on phone had too many challenges including the cost of the phone calls, ability to be able to record and transcribe the calls for effective analysis, amongst many others. Another challenge to the outcome of the research is the response rate of the questionnaire. I do not have any control over the research subjects, but I expect that my contact will do everything possible to ensure that as many people as possible complete and return to him. But I am not able to directly influence this, as I am unable to travel to Nigeria because of cost factor. I cannot therefore guarantee that I would have the required number of respondents for the research. Researchers have complained about delayed progress of researches because of dependence on others for information (Saunders et al, 2003: 92). One major challenge envisaged is the ability to effectively manage my time to ensure the completion of my research within the specified time. This is borne of the fact that, as mentioned above, I am not physically present to be able to have any control over my research subjects. Hence, my analysis will be delayed until I have completely received the completed questionnaires from my contact. Considering the fact that most people in Nigeria have access to the Internet only during office hours and I plan to be in touch with my contact daily until I have received at least 10 completed questionnaires to proceed with my analysis. This may also be a challenge as the cost of making phone calls daily will be quite high and I may not be able to afford this. I will however, use the cheapest means of achieving this to ensure that I keep the line of communication open with my contact. The next chapter will present the research questionnaire and an analysis of the data collected from it. The analysis will be done using graphs, as this is the cheapest means of conducting the analysis to achieve desired results. [I would put the questionnaire itself in an Appendix] CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 DATA ANALYSIS This chapter deals with the analysis from the 10 questionnaires administered and presentation of data in chart as regard the research work. The questions were design to accomplish the research question and objectives of the research work, that is to explore employee remuneration on organisational productivity . A total number of Ten (50) questionnaires and into Three (3) different sections all in tables were distributed. The findings are design to evaluate the responses about, exploring employee remuneration on organisational productivity. References Amstrong, M. (2002), Employee Reward, 3rd edition., Great Britain: CIPD. Gallagher, W. E. and Einhorn, H. J. (1976), Motivation theory and job design, The Journal of Business,Vol. 49, No. 3, p.358-373 Huang, X. and Van de Vliert, E. (2003), Where intrinsic job satisfaction fails to work: national moderators of intrinsic motivation, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 24, p.159-179. Maxwell, J. R. et al (2008), Work system design to improve the economic performance of the firm, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 14 No. 3, p.432-446. Sarin, A. (2009), Corporate Strategic Motivation: Evolution Continues-Henry. A. Murrays Manifest Needs to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to Anil Sarins Contributory Theory of Existence, The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 14 No. 2, p.237-244. Saunders et al, (2003), Research Methods for Business Students, 3rd edn, Essex: Prentice Hall. Umstot, D. D. et al (1978), Goal Setting and Job Enrichment: An Integrated Approach to Job Design, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, p.867- Gary Dessller (2008) Human Resources Management. edition. 11th Edition. Pearson Education International. England Stephen P.Robbison David A. Decenzo (2005) Fundamental of Management. Essential concept Application, 5th edition. Person education international. Baron A Armstrong M. (2007) Human capital management, Achieving Added value through people. Kogan page limited. Reilly P Williams T (2006). Strategic HR, Building the capital to deliver. Gower publishing limited. England. Julie Beardwell Tim Claydon (2007) Human Resources Management, A contemporary Approach. 5th edition. Pearson Education International. England. Noe Hollenbeck Gerhart Wright (2003) Human Resource Management, Gaining a competitive advantage. 4th edition. McGraw- Hill Higher Education

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media Free Essays

In the United States of America, citizens possess the privilege to enjoy the freedom of speech and the freedom to express their views and feelings under the protection of the U. S. Constitution. We will write a custom essay sample on Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, there may be a point at which freedom of speech is abused or escalated to an unethical level that may be harmful to the well-being of society, particularly the youth of today and the future leaders of our world. Over the years, the question â€Å"should parents be concerned about the portrayal of teenage girls in the media? † has become a significant controversial moral issue in society. The portrayal of teenage girls in the media is a controversial moral issue because of the cultural sensitivity and the perceived intrusiveness of the subject. This issue primarily concerns the excessiveness of sexual content and unbecoming images of young women exposed through the media. Needless to say, this question leaves many parents ill at ease. Images, perceived norms and new trends are consistently being set for how young girls and women must look, act, think, and feel in order to be successful and accepted in today’s society. There has been an ongoing debate concerning moral actions that need to be taken to regulate the appropriateness of age sensitive material being permeated throughout the media. Media is everywhere; it is in classrooms, advertisements, movies, televisions, magazines, newspapers, the internet, the workplace, and in homes all over the country, and it continues to infuse the world and our lives. Media does not only sell tangible products, but also morals, values, concepts of life, and success, and to some extent normalcy (Killing Us Softly 3). Whether positive or negative, consciously or unconsciously, media affects each and every one of us every day. Young girls are being exposed to a supposed ‘ideal’ image of female beauty through the years of media exposure. For example, the notion that the most important thing to a young woman should be her physical appearance is an idea that is acquired at a very young age. Even before a girl reaches puberty, she is already aware of her physical appearance and the effect it has on her stand in society. Extreme and unhealthy amounts of guilt and shame can follow if the young woman does not achieve that perception (Killing Us Softly 3). Many people in America’s society believe that the media’s unethical behavior is to blame for influencing and even producing some of the nation’s growing problems among teens, such as eating disorders, increased participation in sexual activity, pregnancy rates, rape, increased alcohol consumption and drug use. Others, however, feel that society should not blame the media for the inappropriate behavior and that lack of discipline and morals among teens in today’s society, but rather blame the parents and educators who influence and guide those teens. The majority of parents hold the media responsible for the corruption of the morals of teenage girls. They believe that the media’s widely unrealistic and unhealthy depiction of young women and what they are supposed to look and behave like in order to be socially accepted and respected has allowed and encouraged teenage girls to become overly consumed in achieving this supposed ideal. Sadly, it has left many girls confused, in danger, or even dead. Supporters of this position argue that â€Å"the mainstream corporate media construct sex and sexuality in ways that limit and hamper girls’ healthy sexual development† (Durham 12). They trust that there is more evidence that the messages teenage girls are getting about sex from media are harmful rather than helpful (12). Intervention began to be a growing demand from the public audience. One potential resolution to this moral issue is to continue revising and producing television and movie ratings that are current, relevant, and constructive to the current images spread through the media. For example, a ban on commercials and advertisements that objectify women and promote sexual behavior would be effective to alleviate these unethical teen images. The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings and the TV Parental Guidelines (a TV ratings system designed to give parents more information about the content and age-appropriateness of TV programs) (â€Å"TV†) can be used â€Å"to allow parents to block out programs they do not want their children to see, based on the ratings† (â€Å"TV†) and other personal preferences. These types of sources support and encourage media restrictions and the facilitation of providing cleaner and more appropriate television for children. Promoting a more realistic and healthy body image, lifestyle, and attitude for today’s young women through public service announcements is another form of media that advocates healthy teen behavior. According to supporters of such sources, consumer advocacy and action is a principal task in resolving this problem. People have the power to critique, analyze, challenge, and affirm media messages, and also have the option of turning off, boycotting, and disengaging from media that denigrate or insult girls (Durham 227). Just as producers have the right to produce and distribute these messages, the public audience has the right to question and challenge them. It is both the responsibility and obligation of the American society and the government to ensure a safer, healthier, more promising nation for girls to develop and grow without negative imagery, or false and fabricated ideals being fed to them through media. Nonetheless, these potential resolutions to limiting the indecent exposure of teenage girls in the media predictably stir up opposition. Some people believe that society should not blame the media for the inappropriate behavior and lack of discipline and morals among teens in today’s society, but rather the parents and educators who influence and guide those teens. Also, they argue that not all media is bad media, and consider the idea that adults are biased against teens. They believe that those who oppose their belief have over exaggerated the media’s impact on today’s youth, claiming that â€Å"seeing attractive models [has] become such a familiar experience that exposure no longer produces a reaction strong enough to influence self-perception or ones general sense of hope† (Wagner 120). Meaning, that girls have become desensitized to this kind of imagery that does not psychology affect them as much as some would like to believe. After analyzing and being influenced by both sides of the argument, the leading proposed solution to me would be to alter the ideal image of female beauty and appeal disseminated by the media, then to extensively promote and advertise an improved, healthier, beautiful, and more realistic idea of female beauty. The media’s negative imagery has had an impact on the majority of today’s youth and is noticeably a serious problem. This impact has infected the minds of young growing girls with unrealistic and dangerous notions of perfection and lifestyle, clearly leaving parents concerned. America’s teenage generation is disregarding moral values and the practice of self-respect, faith, self awareness and the embracing of childhood experiences, and rather engaging in activities involving immoral behavior which are simply not age-appropriate. Although who can blame them, since this type of behavior has become socially acceptable due to the media’s infiltration into America’s homes and spread of images and ideals focused rebellious behavior, sexual active, parental defiance, and distorted imagery of beauty and health. The American society should take action as concerned citizens by voicing their opinions to society and demanding a decrease of the objectification and sexualization of females in the media. Additionally, since advertising agencies are not going to immediately rid themselves of the negative unethical habits with regard to female imagery in the media, continuing to produce and broadcast understandable and accurate ratings on all television programs, movies and even advertisements is an effective way to inform parents about what their children are watching and being influenced by. Many young girls worry about the contours of their bodies, especially shape, size, and even muscle tone, because of the belief that the body is the ultimate expression of the self and beauty (Durham 128). This kind of mentality can cause long-term physical and mental damage and can push young girls to dangerous limits. Communities should promote extracurricular programs that help young people develop self-esteem based on traits such as ability, talents, character, and academics, rather than simply physical appearance. The need to replace sexualized images with positive images of females endorsing notions other than physical beauty is vital. The goal should be to deliver messages to all adolescents, boys and girls, which lead to healthy, safe and realistic development. Our government has an obligation to protect its citizens from harmful and dangerous things; ultimately, these things are under the government’s control. The negative influences generated by media on young girls should be taken into consideration and should be diminished, even if that means comprising the few positives. This lasting controversy is clearly a conflict between the values of health, safety, self-esteem, and ethical choices of teenage girls on one side, and the support of logical evidence and standpoints and the parental supervision aspect on the other. While promoting positive messages to youth through the media is the ultimate plan and goal for supporting the change in images presented by the young girls about young girls, every solution can back fire. Some may believe that attempting to transform the media is a waste of time because these corporations behind it all will not bend easily since the obvious result and reason for a lack of good conscience is loss of profits and loss of the number one selling point, sex. However, if enough people take a stand and stop buying products with discriminating and insulting ad campaigns, turn off the television shows displaying high school students having sex and doing drugs, stop allowing their children to go see the movies that encourage and reward poor behavior among teens, then a demand will not go nnoticed. This may force those corporations responsible for the media to change this rising controversial moral problem and take us one step closer to having healthier, happier, growing young girls, rather than confused, pressured, unsatisfied, and vulnerable young teenage girls living everyday of their lives engulfed by an array of poor images and trying to live up to a image that is unhealthy, unsafe, unethical, or simply just doesn’t exist. Works Cited Durham, Gigi. The Lolita Effect. New York: Overlook P, The, 2008. Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising’s Image of Women. Dir. Sut Jhally. Perf. Jean Kilbourne. 2001. â€Å"TV Ratings. † The TV Parental Guidelines. 2008. 1 Nov. 2008 . Wagner, Viqi. Eating Disorders. New York: Greenhaven P, Incorporated, 2007. How to cite Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media, Papers

Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media Free Essays

In the United States of America, citizens possess the privilege to enjoy the freedom of speech and the freedom to express their views and feelings under the protection of the U. S. Constitution. We will write a custom essay sample on Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, there may be a point at which freedom of speech is abused or escalated to an unethical level that may be harmful to the well-being of society, particularly the youth of today and the future leaders of our world. Over the years, the question â€Å"should parents be concerned about the portrayal of teenage girls in the media? † has become a significant controversial moral issue in society. The portrayal of teenage girls in the media is a controversial moral issue because of the cultural sensitivity and the perceived intrusiveness of the subject. This issue primarily concerns the excessiveness of sexual content and unbecoming images of young women exposed through the media. Needless to say, this question leaves many parents ill at ease. Images, perceived norms and new trends are consistently being set for how young girls and women must look, act, think, and feel in order to be successful and accepted in today’s society. There has been an ongoing debate concerning moral actions that need to be taken to regulate the appropriateness of age sensitive material being permeated throughout the media. Media is everywhere; it is in classrooms, advertisements, movies, televisions, magazines, newspapers, the internet, the workplace, and in homes all over the country, and it continues to infuse the world and our lives. Media does not only sell tangible products, but also morals, values, concepts of life, and success, and to some extent normalcy (Killing Us Softly 3). Whether positive or negative, consciously or unconsciously, media affects each and every one of us every day. Young girls are being exposed to a supposed ‘ideal’ image of female beauty through the years of media exposure. For example, the notion that the most important thing to a young woman should be her physical appearance is an idea that is acquired at a very young age. Even before a girl reaches puberty, she is already aware of her physical appearance and the effect it has on her stand in society. Extreme and unhealthy amounts of guilt and shame can follow if the young woman does not achieve that perception (Killing Us Softly 3). Many people in America’s society believe that the media’s unethical behavior is to blame for influencing and even producing some of the nation’s growing problems among teens, such as eating disorders, increased participation in sexual activity, pregnancy rates, rape, increased alcohol consumption and drug use. Others, however, feel that society should not blame the media for the inappropriate behavior and that lack of discipline and morals among teens in today’s society, but rather blame the parents and educators who influence and guide those teens. The majority of parents hold the media responsible for the corruption of the morals of teenage girls. They believe that the media’s widely unrealistic and unhealthy depiction of young women and what they are supposed to look and behave like in order to be socially accepted and respected has allowed and encouraged teenage girls to become overly consumed in achieving this supposed ideal. Sadly, it has left many girls confused, in danger, or even dead. Supporters of this position argue that â€Å"the mainstream corporate media construct sex and sexuality in ways that limit and hamper girls’ healthy sexual development† (Durham 12). They trust that there is more evidence that the messages teenage girls are getting about sex from media are harmful rather than helpful (12). Intervention began to be a growing demand from the public audience. One potential resolution to this moral issue is to continue revising and producing television and movie ratings that are current, relevant, and constructive to the current images spread through the media. For example, a ban on commercials and advertisements that objectify women and promote sexual behavior would be effective to alleviate these unethical teen images. The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings and the TV Parental Guidelines (a TV ratings system designed to give parents more information about the content and age-appropriateness of TV programs) (â€Å"TV†) can be used â€Å"to allow parents to block out programs they do not want their children to see, based on the ratings† (â€Å"TV†) and other personal preferences. These types of sources support and encourage media restrictions and the facilitation of providing cleaner and more appropriate television for children. Promoting a more realistic and healthy body image, lifestyle, and attitude for today’s young women through public service announcements is another form of media that advocates healthy teen behavior. According to supporters of such sources, consumer advocacy and action is a principal task in resolving this problem. People have the power to critique, analyze, challenge, and affirm media messages, and also have the option of turning off, boycotting, and disengaging from media that denigrate or insult girls (Durham 227). Just as producers have the right to produce and distribute these messages, the public audience has the right to question and challenge them. It is both the responsibility and obligation of the American society and the government to ensure a safer, healthier, more promising nation for girls to develop and grow without negative imagery, or false and fabricated ideals being fed to them through media. Nonetheless, these potential resolutions to limiting the indecent exposure of teenage girls in the media predictably stir up opposition. Some people believe that society should not blame the media for the inappropriate behavior and lack of discipline and morals among teens in today’s society, but rather the parents and educators who influence and guide those teens. Also, they argue that not all media is bad media, and consider the idea that adults are biased against teens. They believe that those who oppose their belief have over exaggerated the media’s impact on today’s youth, claiming that â€Å"seeing attractive models [has] become such a familiar experience that exposure no longer produces a reaction strong enough to influence self-perception or ones general sense of hope† (Wagner 120). Meaning, that girls have become desensitized to this kind of imagery that does not psychology affect them as much as some would like to believe. After analyzing and being influenced by both sides of the argument, the leading proposed solution to me would be to alter the ideal image of female beauty and appeal disseminated by the media, then to extensively promote and advertise an improved, healthier, beautiful, and more realistic idea of female beauty. The media’s negative imagery has had an impact on the majority of today’s youth and is noticeably a serious problem. This impact has infected the minds of young growing girls with unrealistic and dangerous notions of perfection and lifestyle, clearly leaving parents concerned. America’s teenage generation is disregarding moral values and the practice of self-respect, faith, self awareness and the embracing of childhood experiences, and rather engaging in activities involving immoral behavior which are simply not age-appropriate. Although who can blame them, since this type of behavior has become socially acceptable due to the media’s infiltration into America’s homes and spread of images and ideals focused rebellious behavior, sexual active, parental defiance, and distorted imagery of beauty and health. The American society should take action as concerned citizens by voicing their opinions to society and demanding a decrease of the objectification and sexualization of females in the media. Additionally, since advertising agencies are not going to immediately rid themselves of the negative unethical habits with regard to female imagery in the media, continuing to produce and broadcast understandable and accurate ratings on all television programs, movies and even advertisements is an effective way to inform parents about what their children are watching and being influenced by. Many young girls worry about the contours of their bodies, especially shape, size, and even muscle tone, because of the belief that the body is the ultimate expression of the self and beauty (Durham 128). This kind of mentality can cause long-term physical and mental damage and can push young girls to dangerous limits. Communities should promote extracurricular programs that help young people develop self-esteem based on traits such as ability, talents, character, and academics, rather than simply physical appearance. The need to replace sexualized images with positive images of females endorsing notions other than physical beauty is vital. The goal should be to deliver messages to all adolescents, boys and girls, which lead to healthy, safe and realistic development. Our government has an obligation to protect its citizens from harmful and dangerous things; ultimately, these things are under the government’s control. The negative influences generated by media on young girls should be taken into consideration and should be diminished, even if that means comprising the few positives. This lasting controversy is clearly a conflict between the values of health, safety, self-esteem, and ethical choices of teenage girls on one side, and the support of logical evidence and standpoints and the parental supervision aspect on the other. While promoting positive messages to youth through the media is the ultimate plan and goal for supporting the change in images presented by the young girls about young girls, every solution can back fire. Some may believe that attempting to transform the media is a waste of time because these corporations behind it all will not bend easily since the obvious result and reason for a lack of good conscience is loss of profits and loss of the number one selling point, sex. However, if enough people take a stand and stop buying products with discriminating and insulting ad campaigns, turn off the television shows displaying high school students having sex and doing drugs, stop allowing their children to go see the movies that encourage and reward poor behavior among teens, then a demand will not go nnoticed. This may force those corporations responsible for the media to change this rising controversial moral problem and take us one step closer to having healthier, happier, growing young girls, rather than confused, pressured, unsatisfied, and vulnerable young teenage girls living everyday of their lives engulfed by an array of poor images and trying to live up to a image that is unhealthy, unsafe, unethical, or simply just doesn’t exist. Works Cited Durham, Gigi. The Lolita Effect. New York: Overlook P, The, 2008. Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising’s Image of Women. Dir. Sut Jhally. Perf. Jean Kilbourne. 2001. â€Å"TV Ratings. † The TV Parental Guidelines. 2008. 1 Nov. 2008 . Wagner, Viqi. Eating Disorders. New York: Greenhaven P, Incorporated, 2007. How to cite Portrayal of Teenage Girls in the Media, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Romanticism And Neoclassicism Essay Example For Students

Romanticism And Neoclassicism Essay Throughout history, the arts and literature have been a form of rationalization of the minds and thoughts of an artist or writer. The progression or regression of knowledge over a period of time can be chronicled or mapped with the use of the literature and arts of these artists. More specifically, the major shift in thinking from 18th-century Neoclassicism to 19th-century Romanticism can be seen in the works of Alexander Pope and William Wordsworth. A deliberation on the works of these two authors show the differences, if not complete opposites between the Neoclassic and Romantic concepts. The purpose of a poem can vary from poet to poet, but for the Neoclassic poet the main purpose was to educate the reader. During this time, Newton and other famous intellects were springing forth new ideas. Ideas such as explanations being formed in terms of moving particles. Pope shares this idea with the reader in An Essay on Man stanza2?: A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain. Popes manner of writing is very straightforward. He makes firm statements instead of questionable presumptions and he does this as if he is teaching something with a purpose. This Neoclassic quality of teaching is seen in portions of his poem such as, His knowledge measured to his state and place, his time a moment, and a point his space. lines71-73 These uses of ideas and teaching in the poem make the poem less pleasurable for the reader to read as it allows no room for imagination and personal reflection. This is likely intentionally done by Pope as it was common in his time to write with a direct purpose rather than to please the reader. The purpose in writing for the Romantic poet is quite different from that of the Neoclassic poet. The Romantic poet wrote to please the reader rather than to educate. This can be seen in Wordsworths poem Ode: Intimations of Immortatlity from Recollections of Early Childhood., especially in his use of language throughout the poem. Language such as, The Moon doth with delight line12 and Then sing, ye Birds, sing, sing a joyous song! Line168 It is this extensive use of vivid language that force the reader to use their imagination and visualize the events or images in the poem. They can then relate to these events or images and in turn become an active participant in reading the poem.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

The Axis of Evil vs. Evil Empire Sample Essay Example For Students

The Axis of Evil vs. Evil Empire Sample Essay The phrases â€Å"Evil Empire† by Ronald Reagan. and â€Å"Axis of Evil† by George w. Bush where phrases used by both presidents to indicate marks that were unsafe or a menace to the universe ; such as the Soviet brotherhood or Iran developing atomic arms among with Iraq and north Korea. Both of these addresss were indicating out the â€Å"bad cats of the world† as in meaning to maintain the peace. but it was besides a manner that the United States Military forces could take action and get down a struggle against the â€Å"bad guys† . In 1983 Ronald Reagan predicted the terminal of the Soviet Union. and he describes the socialist province as â€Å"the focal point of immorality in the modern world† because of its military capablenesss. The Soviet Union was under great troubles in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. Bloated military budget. societal jobs. and economic stagnancy where the chief issues among others. In January 29 2002 Presid ent George W. Bush gave the term â€Å"axis of evil† to the states of Iraq. Iran and North Korea. These states were portrayed by George W. Bush during the State of the Union as possessing atomic arms ; the axis of immorality was condemned as a totalitarian government who was carrying arms of mass devastation. We will write a custom essay on The Axis of Evil vs. Evil Empire Sample specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Bush lambasted these states for denying their people’s freedom. rejecting international reviews. and cultivating nervus gas and splenic fever. The two addresss have similar thoughts despite the different epoch. both of them speak about states or organisations that are considered possible dainties. they make them look like evil forces with possible devastation forces upon the people of the United States and the universe. In Ronald Reagan the address is seeking to come to a peacefully understanding with the Communists. and in George W. Bush address provides more grounds against the enemies and declares that the war against panic is merely acquiring started. Both of the addresss â€Å"excuse† the United States Military to take immediate actions against those evil forces. Some differences could be the external factors. In the cold war the was the tenseness betweem the communist universe and the United States. the Soviet Union wanted to populate in a universe in where the U. S were defeated and both states were in a â€Å"race† to develop arms and engineering. Meanwhile in the war against panic the struggle was created because of states possessing so much arms and heavy weapon including atomic. biological or chemical arms. The Cold War was a stand-off between the United States and Russia. At this clip. America truly felt threatened ; no one knew whether they’d wake up the following forenoon absolutely all right. or watching the sky as an atom-bomb fell from a Russian plane. The Soviet Union wanted to get the better of the United States. but the Soviet Union was besides in great troubles at the clip. America was in great fiscal emphasis as the World War had merely ended. The war on terrorist act is the existent war against terrorists groups that started slaying people on 2001 September. 11. It was a similar scenario to the cold war. people didn’t cognize if they’ll board a plane and arrive at their finish safe and sane. or leap in a plane that is being hijacked and crashed into say. the White House. Peoples are in a terror here every bit good. non to advert there is a widespread hatred for Muslims because of their wrongly placed association with terrorists. as Russian citizens were one time associated with Communist undercover agents. The United States was besides in great fiscal emphasis. .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .postImageUrl , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:hover , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:visited , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:active { border:0!important; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:active , .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174 .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5b80c05a1ec176ad616ebd7fd0343174:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Totalitarian Agriculture EssayThe Cold war and the war on Panic are really similar ; the struggles reveal that when the United States is in economic problem it develops a demand for holding a psychological enemy. Given the fact that the United States Military is known as the most advanced of the universe. and how the U. S can bring forth so much net income out of a war because of advanced military engineering and war stuffs. Just like in World War II. that the U. S was the lone state to do a net income out of it. It could be said that the United States develops these struggles to acquire out of an economic depression. Both of these struggles terrorize citizens into bit by bit deteriorate their civil autonomies. These struggles were alibis for one-sided invasions.